Vertebrate fauna of SE Asia


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Text and photos by Nick Baker, unless credited to others.
Copyright ゥ Ecology Asia 2024










Primates of  Southeast Asia

Worldwide there are more than 450 species of primate. In Southeast Asia, around 100 species are recognised, comprising 21 species of prosimian (represented in the region by Lorises and Tarsiers), 59 species of Old World Monkey (including macaques, and colobines such as lutungs, surilis, doucs and others), 19 species of gibbon and 4 great apes (including humans).  In evolutionary terms, prosimians are considered to represent ancient lineages of primate, and great apes the most advanced.  Ecologically, primates play an important role as seed dispersers in the region's forests.


Prosimians : Slow Lorises
8 species, all in SE Asia

  Full Species List:
Nycticebus bengalensis - Bengal Slow Loris
Nycticebus coucang - Sunda Slow Loris
Nycticebus javanicus - Javan Slow Loris
Nycticebus menagensis - Philippine Slow Loris
Nycticebus bancanus - Bangka Slow Loris
Nycticebus borneanus - Schwaner Mountains Slow Loris
Nycticebus kayan - Kayan River Slow Loris
Nycticebus pygmaeus - Pygmy Slow Loris

Conservation Links :  
IUCN / SSC Primate Specialist Group

Gibbon Conservation Alliance
Orang Utan Foundation International
Primate Watching

Nycticebus spp.

Prosimians : Tarsiers
13 species, all in SE Asia

Gursky's Spectral Tarsier
Tarsius spectrumgurskyae
  Full Species List:
Carlito syrichta - Philippine Tarsier
Cephalopachus bancanus - Western Tarsier
Tarsius tarsier - Selayar Tarsier
Tarsius fuscus- Makassar Tarsier
Tarsius dentatus - Dian's Tarsier
Tarsius pelengensis - Peleng Tarsier
Tarsius sangirensis - Great Sangihe Tarsier
Tarsius spectrumgurskyae - Gursky痴 Spectral Tarsier
Tarsius supriatnai - Jatna's Tarsier
Tarsius tumpara - Siau Island Tarsier
Tarsius pumilus - Sulawesi Mountain Tarsier
Tarsius lariang - Lariang Tarsier
Tarsius wallacei - Wallace's Tarsier


Old World Monkeys : Cercopithecines : Macaques (Macaca spp.)
SE Asia : 14 species (worldwide 23 species)

Stump-tailed Macaque
Macaca arctoides
Assamese Macaque
Macaca assamensis
Long-tailed Macaque
Macaca fascicularis 
Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta 
N. Pig-tailed Macaque
Macaca leonina    
Other SE Asia species :
M. hecki - Heck's Macaque
M. maura - Moor Macaque
M. nigrescens - Gorontalo Macaque
M. ochreata - Booted Macaque
M. siberu - Siberut Macaque
M. tonkeana - Tonkean Macaque
Sunda Pig-tailed Macaque    Macaca nemestrina
Celebes Crested Macaque
Macaca nigra
Pagai Macaque
Macaca pagensis


Old World Monkeys : Colobines : Surilis (Presbytis spp.)
19 species, all in SE Asia

Javan Grizzled Langur
Presbytis comata 
Raffles' Banded Langur
Presbytis femoralis  
E. Sumatran Banded Langur
Presbytis percura  
Mentawai Langur
Presbytis potenziani  
Robinson's Banded Langur
Presbytis robinsoni  
Other SE Asia species :
P. bicolor - Black-and-white Langur
P. canicrus - Miller's Grizzled Langur
P. chrysomelas - Cross-marked Langur
P. frontata - White-fronted Langur
P. hosei - Hose's Langur
P. melalophos - Black-crested Sumatran Langur
P. mitrata - Mitred Langur
P. natunae - Natuna Islands Langur
P. sabana - Sabah Grizzled Langur
P. siberu - Siberut Langur
Red Leaf Monkey
Presbytis rubicunda 
White-thighed Surili
Presbytis siamensis 
Black Sumatran Langur
Presbytis sumatranus   
Thomas's Leaf Monkey
Presbytis thomasi   


Old World Monkeys : Colobines : Lutungs (Trachypithecus spp.)
SE Asia : 19 species (worldwide 21 species)

Javan Lutung
Trachypithecus auratus
Silvered Langur
Trachypithecus cristatus
Indochinese Silvered Langur
Trachypithecus germaini
Hatinh Langur
Trachypithecus hatinhensis
Dusky Langur
Trachypithecus obscurus
Other SE Asia species :
T. barbei - Tenasserim Langur
T. crepusculus - Indochinese Grey Langur
T. delacouri - Delacour's Langur
T. ebenus - Black Langur
T. francoisi - Francois' Langur
T. laotum - Laotian Langur
T. margarita - Annamese Langur
T. mauritius - West Javan Langur
T. phayrei - Phayre's Langur
T. popa - Popa Langur
T. shortridgei - Shortridge's Langur
Capped Langur
Trachypithecus pileatus
Cat Ba Langur
T. poliocephalus
Selangor Silvered Langur
T. selangorensis


Old World Monkeys : Odd-nosed colobines (Nasalis, Simias, Pygathrix, Rhinopithecus)
SE Asia : 7 species (worldwide 9 species)

Proboscis Monkey
Nasalis larvatus 
Black-shanked Douc
Pygathrix nigripes
Other SE Asia species :
Pygathrix cinerea - Grey-shanked Douc
Pygathrix nemaeus - Red-shanked Douc
Rhinopithecus strykeri - Myanmar snub-nosed Monkey
Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey
Rhinopithecus avunculus
Pig-tailed Snub-nosed Monkey
Simias concolor


Lesser Apes : Gibbons (Hooloc, Hylobates, Nomascus, Symphalangus)
SE Asia : 19 species (worldwide 22 species)

Agile Gibbon
Hylobates agilis
East Bornean Grey Gibbon
Hylobates funereus
White-handed Gibbon
Hylobates lar
Javan Gibbon
Hylobates moloch
Pileated Gibbon
Hylobates pileatus

Buff-cheeked Gibbon
Nomascus gabriellae

Symphalangus syndactylus
Other SE Asia species :
Hoolock hoolock - Western Hoolock
Hoolock leuconedys - Eastern Hoolock
Hoolock tianxing - Gaoligong Hoolock
Hylobates abbotti - Abbott's Grey Gibbon
Hylobates albibarbus - Bornean White-bearded Gibbon
Hylobates klossii - Kloss's Gibbon
Hylobates muelleri - Mllers Gibbon
Nomascus annamensis - Northern Yellow-cheeked Gibbon
Nomascus concolor - Western Black Crested Gibbon
Nomascus leucogenys - Northern White-cheeked Gibbon
Nomascus nasutus - Eastern Black Crested Gibbon
Nomascus siki - Southern White-cheeked Gibbon


Great Apes : Hominids & Orang Utans (Homo, Pongo)
SE Asia : 4 species (worldwide 7 species)

Other SE Asia species :
Pongo abelii - Sumatran Orang Utan
Pongo tapanuliensis - Tapanuli Orang Utan
Homo sapiens 
Bornean Orang Utan
Pongo pygmaeus